About The Confessions of Saint Augustine by St. Augustine, Translated by. Edward B. Pusey, D. D.. The Confessions of Saint Augustine. Title. AUGUSTINE: CONFESSIONS. Newly translated and edited by. ALBERT C. OUTLER, Ph.D., D.D.. Professor of Theology. Perkins School of Theology. Southern. addresses in his Confession, a question as timeless as the spirit. Ernest J. Simmons As such, the Confession marks a turning point in Tolstoy's concern as an.

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The Confession of a Fallen Angel, by Penta Gram. Published by CNS. Page 3. Penta Gram. The Confession of a Fallen. Angel. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . The confession game The setting Very often, in game theory we have settings involving confessions. This confession game twists the standard idea a little and .

I remember that before I was eleven a grammar school pupil, Vladimir Milyutin long since dead , visited us one Sunday and announced as the latest novelty a discovery made at his school. This discovery was that there is no God and that all we are taught about Him is a mere invention this was in I remember how interested my elder brothers were in this information. They called me to their council and we all, I remember, became very animated, and accepted it as something very interesting and quite possible.

I remember also that when my elder brother, Dmitriy, who was then at the university, suddenly, in the passionate way natural to him, devoted himself to religion and began to attend all the Church services, to fast and to lead a pure and moral life, we all - even our elders - unceasingly held him up to ridicule and for some unknown reason called him "Noah".

I remember that Musin-Pushkin, the then Curator of Kazan University, when inviting us to dance at his home, ironically persuaded my brother who was declining the invitation by the argument that even David danced before the Ark. I sympathized with these jokes made by my elders, and drew from them the conclusion that though it is necessary to learn the catechism and go to church, one must not take such things too seriously.

I remember also that I read Voltaire when I was very young, and that his raillery, far from shocking me, amused me very much. My lapse from faith occurred as is usual among people on our level of education. In most cases, I think, it happens thus: a man lives like everybody else, on the basis of principles not merely having nothing in common with religious doctrine, but generally opposed to it; religious doctrine does not play a part in life, in intercourse with others it is never encountered, and in a man's own life he never has to reckon with it.

Religious doctrine is professed far away from life and independently of it. If it is encountered, it is only as an external phenomenon disconnected from life.

Then as now, it was and is quite impossible to judge by a man's life and conduct whether he is a believer or not. If there be a difference between a man who publicly professes orthodoxy and one who denies it, the difference is not in favor of the former. Then as now, the public profession and confession of orthodoxy was chiefly met with among people who were dull and cruel and who considered themselves very important.

Ability, honesty, reliability, good-nature and moral conduct, were often met with among unbelievers. The aim of the work is to move Romanianus to follow Augustine, to leave Manichaeism and join the Christianity. In spite of being also a philosopher, he finds satisfying answers only in the act of faith in the revealed truth as taught by the Catholic Christianity.

We ascended even further by internal reflection and dialogue and wonder at your works, and we entered into our own minds. We moved up beyond them so as to attain to the region of inexhaustible abundance where you feed Israel eternally with truth for food. When he speaks as a philosopher, the component of faith is always actively present, and, when he speaks as a theologian and also acts as a Catholic layman, priest and bishop, the philosophical urge to search and question never ceases to cooperate in his writing, preaching and church ministry.

Question is inherent to the religion as he conceives it, i. To search or question in a religious manner means to search with a love for God who is the truth. There is still a scholarly debate about various reasons for the composition of this work.

But a polemical 25 See Brown He is convinced that God is true and that there is truth about his soul, i. Augustine searches his heart, a human heart, to discover and expose the fact that human beings are weak, sinful, sensual, but also hopeful, graced, filled with a passionate search for truth.

Although they often yield to the temptation to sink back to their native darkness, they still long for the happi- ness that trespasses this visible world. This view he held most of his life time as can be seen especially in his psychological ways to describe the triune God, which is not perfect and not equal impar , though. These are not the words of Augustine at the beginning of his journey. These are his words from the time he composes his Confessions. Although he confesses that God is truth I 1.

Strangely enough, Augustine is led in this way to pick up the biblical books, available to him in the Old Latin translation. It was not work of Plotinus or other philosopher which Augustine considered as the means of progress to the truth; his cultural background directs him rather to Christian sacred writings.

Although his father Patricius remained pagan until the very last days of his life, his mother Monnica was a Christian, but she did not provide her son with no sound Christian education.

The Confessions Of St Augustine

He found it barbaric, together with different genealogies in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke and with offensive reckonings of polygamy in the Old Testament.

Augustine, put off by the biblical narrative and driven by the same desire of religious wis- dom that moved him to read the Bible, becomes a listener auditor in the sect of Manichaeans. This religion of Mani attracted Augustine for the next nine years when he was finding it both intellectually and emotionally satisfying. For Augus- tine, pretending to know truth equals a sacrilege; there is no truth without religion and no reli- gion without truth. We can recog- nise here the critical spirit of Augustine in front of the claims of truth that a religion can take; it is not enough to claim the truth, there has to be a very human and whole concern and quest for truth present.

This search for truth and never escaping definitely the reason is why Augustine decided to part with the Manichaeans.


Up to this moment, in the first books of the Confessions, the words describing descent and going away from God prevail.

He was setting much hope on the encounter with the Manichaean bishop Faustus, who was recom- mended to him as the man who would answer his doubts.

And he learned an important lesson: that one can talk about God without actually speaking of the real God. He learned that it is perhaps too easy to identify the God of whom any religion speaks with the true God. In this moment, Manichaeism becomes nearly a historic exemplification of neglecting the truth. Now, when Augustine reaches the lowest point of his journey, he is to leave Africa for Italy.

An ascent will follow, going up and back towards God. For him, the search for truth did not end with finding a religious truth. And still, later he would recognise that God was still present although he did not know him.

Augustine says: I was outside myself, but God was within: he was with Augustine, but Augus- tine was not with him X. The light does not come to him from the adherence to the doctrine professed by others, but rather it is an interior struggle, solicited by an ever-renewed lack of satisfaction with the degree in which the truth has been acquired.

First, it was much insecure and visibly it was not bringing any results. He was attracted to the scepticism of the Academics, which is quite understandable for somebody who experienced that something he held for firm was not firm at all VI. Besides, the world of his age was, as H. There were always everyday truths which could be difficult to demonstrate, but it would be hard to doubt them. After finding out that materialistic doctrine of Epicurus is unacceptable for him VI.

Their teaching was very satisfying for Augustine as it gave him a philo- sophical and reasonable account of the whole.

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From Plato, he takes the notion that it is more to love wisdom than to possess it. What is more, Neo-Platonism helped him to recognise that the supreme being is not material, and in this way the philosophical truth helps him to get rid of obstacles against what he will discover as true religion.

The person who knows the truth knows it, and he who knows it knows eternity. Love knows it. Augustine interprets his Platonic ascent most probably already under the prism of his un- clear ideas about God from the childhood, but we can expect that his image of God changed under the influence of Ambrose and Simplicianus; most certainly his image of God comes to maturity when he becomes a theologian and a bishop.

Christianity itself would be understood as the fulfilment of the wisdom sought by philosophers. In fact, he confesses that Neo-Platonism teaches many truths and, in the early stage of his Christian life, he writes that it would suffice to change only a few words in Neo-Platonic books so that they become Christian.

For us, who read this autobiographical book as a classic, it is difficult to apprehend how innovatory, new and therefore also confusing for the reader the book was. This perception of one-time conversion can be found not only in Christianity, but it is co- herent to all religious and philosophical tradition of Antiquity, as A.

Nock shows. The converted speaker or writer would draw a clear line between the past and present life, making clear that they are distinct as black and white.

The reference to the past life and its bad habits would have a meaning of a testimony, providing a dark contrast that would help to shine up the new life situation that was caused by the conver- sion. The new life is so powerful that the converted does not look back and does not have any thoughts or temptations to go back to his former ways; now, he is a different person.

Another 33 See Nock — It can be no surprise as it can be considered a weakness of nearly any convert in history. This understanding, so deep-rooted in ancient philosophical tradition, was present even in Pelagius, whose pupils and teachings would become later the most formidable adversary of late Augustine.

For him, conversion was not enough anymore. Apart from this inner struggle, his conversion was much unlike e.

Augustine simply resigns to his post of the rhetor of imperial court and his resignation is explained not by religious but health concerns. Additionally, we do not find this thick line between his former and present life. In fact, the memory plays a crucial part in Book X. Augustine does not deny who he was; he is actually aware that his identity stems from all the experience he has made in his life.

He knows that his conversion is not over, that he has not yet arrived to perfection. It is a notion present already in St Ambrose, the bishop of Milan, who baptised him on Easter Night Already Ambrose promoted an idea, revolutionary or hardly understandable for many Christians of the age, that even a bap- tised Christian needs to acknowledge that he remains a sinner who is obliged to search for forgiveness through an everyday penance. This would be, for Ambrose, a way to grow both in 34 See Cyprian, Ep.

Only after that man can arrive to the perfection when the soul would be joined to Christ the Word and finally unified with Him.

Augustine takes a similar critical approach to himself in his Confessions, especially in Book X. His righteousness is not self-righteous and his justification is not only self-justified.

He remained to himself a mystery. Still, he did not fully understand why he had not ar- rived to a perfect conversion. He knew that there is a way to go yet.

For instance, as a strong argument of Christianity against various Gnostic schools, Irenaeus proposes, that it is based upon the teachings of the apostles. Christ, who stated about himself that he is the Truth.

The Johan- nine saying plays a role here as well, a role that is unique enough as he employs the quotation only on one place although we find a strong allusion already in Conf I. To possess my God, the humble Jesus, I was not yet humble enough.

I did not know what his weakness was meant to teach. Your Word, eternal truth, higher than the superior parts of your creation, raises those submissive to him to himself. In their weariness they fall prostrate before this divine weakness which rises and lifts them up VII. In fact, we can discover here the Platonic theme of truth that attracts whoever searches it. It is not the wise or the philosopher who possesses the truth, but it is the truth itself that pos- sesses the person who searches for wisdom.

But, paradoxically, it is this humility of human mind and weakness of his intellectual capacities what becomes a vehicle of the knowledge of the truth: simile simili cognoscitur. Augustine finds a solid ground that enables him to know God deeper and deeper.Another 33 See Nock — The Johan- nine saying plays a role here as well, a role that is unique enough as he employs the quotation only on one place although we find a strong allusion already in Conf I.

Augsburg Confession

Ability, honesty, reliability, good-nature and moral conduct, were often met with among unbelievers. We moved up beyond them so as to attain to the region of inexhaustible abundance where you feed Israel eternally with truth for food. What difficulty is it for me, I say, if I understand the text in a way different from someone else, who understands the scriptural author in another sense? In response, Phillipp Melancthon wrote a lengthy and sustained argument both supporting the Augsburg Confession and refuting the arguments made in the Confutation.

The powers given to the clergy in issues of government or the military are granted and respected only through civil means; they are not civil rulers of governments and the military by divine right. Years of adoption[ edit ]. The English translation of the Augsburg Confession and German Lutheran theologians would influence the composition of the first of the Anglican articles of faith started in the latter s and culminating with the Thirty-Nine Articles in If there be a difference between a man who publicly professes orthodoxy and one who denies it, the difference is not in favor of the former.