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zo, 24 mrt GMT moral issues in business pdf - Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and. Getting the books moral issues in business 12th edition by william h shaw and vincent barry H. Shaw, Vincent Barry Test Bank pdf docx epub after payment. Shaw And Vincent Barry Ebook Download, Free Moral Issues In Business 12th Edition. By William H Shaw And Vincent Barry Download Pdf.

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Hit a particularly tricky question? Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam. The best part? Nonconsequentialists believe that a duty to assist others and to promote total happiness is only one of a number of duties incumbent on us. These rights can rest on special relationships and roles, or they can be general human rights. Rights can be negative, protecting us from outside interference, or they can be positive, requiring others to provide us with certain benefits or opportunities.

In an organizational context, nonconsequentialism in its non-Kantian forms stresses the plurality of moral considerations to be weighed. While emphasizing the importance of respecting moral rights, it acknowledges that morality has limits and that organizations have legitimate goals to pursue.

Critics question whether a nonconsequentialist principles are adequately justified and whether b nonconsequentialism can satisfactorily handle conflicting rights and principles. Rule utilitarianism is a hybrid theory.

It maintains that the proper principles of right and wrong are those that would maximize happiness if society adopted them. Thus, the utilitarian standard does not apply directly to individual actions but rather to the adoption of the moral principles that guide individual action.

Rule utilitarianism avoids many of the standard criticisms of act utilitarianism. Despite disagreements on controversial theoretical issues, people can make significant progress in resolving practical moral problems through open-minded and reflective discussion.

One useful approach is to identify the possibly conflicting obligations, ideals, and effects in a given situation and then to identify where the emphasis should lie among these different considerations.

Teaching Suggestions Chapter 2 deals with several important normative theories of ethics that is, with several rival theories of right and wrong. Note that ethical relativism and the divine command theory, which were discussed in chapter 1, can also be seen as normative theories and thus contrasted with the theories of this chapter.

Students should be reminded that the main purpose of normative theories of ethics is that we apply them to our reasoning process. Students can be expected, encouraged, or required to apply these theories when they write essays and present arguments.

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Students can assess the comprehensiveness and accuracy of each moral theory and consider objections. This requires them to understand how to apply each moral theory to each. Each theory is intuitive insofar as we already know quite a bit about right and wrong and each theory should be consistent with the most uncontroversial moral beliefs we have.

For example, we all know that charity is generally good, stealing is generally wrong, and killing people is generally wrong. Each moral theory should be able to explain that these actions are good or wrong even though the explanations can differ.

Consequentialist theories, nonconsequentialist theories, and virtue ethics will all be briefly described below and applied to explain some of our considered moral beliefs. Consequantialist theories: For the consequentialist, the key to determining whether an action or rule is ethically appropriate is a determination of the consequences of performing the action or following the rule. Once this is done, there are at least two different important issues that you can raise for the students to discuss: In considering the consequences, we are considering the effects that performing an action or following a rule can have.

But the effects on whom or on what? On humans On all sentient creatures? On ecosystems? What sorts of consequences should we be interested in? For instance, John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham focused on pleasure and pain, which they equated with happiness and suffering. But is this what we want to focus on? If so, is there only one kind of pleasure? When discussing utilitarianism, bear in mind that the Shaw and Barry defer discussion of rule utilitarianism until later in the chapter and that they also discuss utilitarianism in chapter 3 in the context of justice and economic distribution.

How can a consequentialist theory apply to our considered moral beliefs? Consider Mill's act utilitarianism that states that all actions are right if they maximize happiness and wrong if they don't.

In that case: Charity isn't good when it fails to actually help anyone or if we have reason to expect that it won't. Sometimes the media can reveal corruption found in a charity and we have a good reason to give to the charities that we think will do the most good.

Stealing is not only likely to make people suffer emotionally when they find out someone stole from them, but stealing often takes away a person's ability to care for themselves.

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For example, if you take food away from someone, they might not be able to care for themselves as well. Nonetheless, stealing isn't necessarily wrong in every situation. Stealing from the wealthy might be necessary to live a decent life when we have no. Consider Robin Hood who stole from the rich to give to the poor. Killing people can not only cause pain to the person that dies, but it can cause people grief. The loved ones of the person who dies are especially relevant. For example, it might be justified when defending a country in war time or when necessary to protect innocent people with law enforcement.

Nonconsequentialist theories: Turning to nonconsequentialist theories, you will want to discuss Immanuel Kant, W.

Ross, and a rights-based ethical approach. In the case of Kant, you can focus on the notions of duty and intention, and how they figure into determinations of what is morally permissible.

You can then move on to Ross and contrast Kant with Ross. Whereas for Kant duties can never conflict, for Ross they are prima facie and we often have to choose between them.

Test Bank for Moral Issues in Business 12th Edition by Shaw and Barry

Here, you can ask how you are supposed to decide between competing, prima facie duties. Finally, you can discuss the notion of human rights. Many people talk about human rights e. How can a nonconsequantialist theory apply to our considered moral beliefs?

Consider the first formulation of Kant's categorical imperative that states that we must act using principles that we can rationally will all people to obey. If they did, it would undermine the whole point of having property in the first place. Assuming having property is rational, then stealing out of greed is not rational.

Having property seems rational insofar as it helps us achieve our goals. We can have property out of self-respect to live our lives efficiently.

We each have food, shelter, and clothing because it helps us care for ourselves, and caring for ourselves tends to be a lot more efficient than caring for others.

If they did, it would become selfdefeating because almost everyone would kill out of anger at one point or another and no one would be left to do what's 'morally right. Virtue ethics: Shaw and Barry don't discuss virtue ethics, such as Aristotle's ethical perspective.

The focus of virtue ethics is what makes a good person rather than when an action is right or wrong, and some philosophers think it is important to discuss virtue ethics as an alternative to both consequetialism and nonconsequentialism. It can be a good idea to at least briefly discuss virtue ethics with the students. Aristotle's virtue ethics is taught in many ethics classes in particular. I will briefly discuss Aristotle's virtue ethics here.

Test Bank Moral Issues in Business 12th Edition Shaw

First, Aristotle argues that the main goal in life is to attain personal happiness flourishing. When someone seeks happiness, we don't want to say that such a goal is irrational.

We don't think we should only seek happiness if it helps us get rich or attain some other good. In fact, happiness might be something that can't be used to achieve anything greater than itself at all.

Second, Aristotle argues that we have habits and skills that help us attain greater happiness or constitute the highest form of happiness by being attained.

In particular, these skills should emphasize what we are i.

In particular, becoming the best kind of person will make us the happiest kind of person by developing distinctly human capacities: Being a political animal is why we have a natural tendency to care about people in general, and love family and friends in particular. A general goal of being a political animal is to get along with people and help them.

Third, Aristotle argues that virtues require us to avoid extremes by finding a golden mean. For example, courage requires us to be afraid when appropriate by avoiding cowardice being afraid when we shouldn't and foolhardiness not being afraid when we should be ; and temperance moderation in satisfying our desires requires us to avoid over-indulgence and under-indulgence. Fourth, Aristotle doesn't think we can know how to be virtuous through theorizing alone.

Instead, we need to refine our ability to be ethical thoughtlessly. This can require an ability to intuitively know what should be done without the need for argument and it requires a sensitivity to the situation, which can be incredibly complex. Aristotle would be skeptical of a the idea of using a decision-procedure to determine right and wrong, and b boiling right and wrong down to a set of rules.

Fifth, Aristotle's main concern is what makes a good person and what we need to do to become ethical human beings.

This requires us to know how to actually behave ethically and be motivated to do what we believe is right. Aristotle's virtue ethics can apply to our considered moral beliefs in the following ways: We have to look out for our own needs and interests to be happy, but it's appropriate to share our wealth with others when we have more than we need because we are political animals and we care for others.

Additionally, we are happier when we get along with others and make friends, and charity can help us achieve that goal. Helping people is consistent with our natural tendency to care for others, but stealing tends to thwart our goals of getting along with others. Stealing is not necessarily wrong because it could be done out of moderate selfrespect or love when we have no better way to attain money and survive.

It is possible that killing a person can be just in extenuating circumstances like war , but it generally thwarts our need to get along with others and our desire to help people rather than harm them.

Questions for Discussion Introduction What are the appropriate principles to rely on when making moral judgments? Consequentialist and Nonconsequentialist Theories In considering the consequences, we are considering the effects that performing an action or following a rule can have.

On humans? On all sentient creatures?If they did, it would undermine the whole point of having property in the first place. It is the study and determination of what is right and good in business settings. Rule utilitarianism applies the utilitarian standard, not to individual actions, but to moral codes as a whole.

A hypothetical imperative tells us to act as we would want everyone to act in that situation. Ethical egoism says that human beings are, as a matter of fact, so constructed that they must behave selfishly. Step-by-step solution:. The ramification of this stage of moral development in the adult businessperson is that if there was no realistic fear of being caught, unethical behavior might become common.