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Original Preface. The Catholic Encyclopedia, as its name implies, proposes to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic. the New Catholic Encyclopedia covers a vast range of topics of interest to Encyclopedia – the volume set and its yearly supplements, including the new . revised edition of the New Catholic Encyclopedia incor- porates material from the volume original edition and the supplement volumes. Entries that have.
The Catholic Encyclopedia, as its name implies, proposes to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. It differs from the general encyclopedia in omitting facts and information which have no relation to the Church.
On the other hand, it is not exclusively a church encyclopedia, nor is it limited to the ecclesiastical sciences and the doings of churchmen. It records all that Catholics have done, not only in behalf of charity and morals, but also for the intellectual and artistic development of mankind.
It chronicles what Catholic artists, educators, poets, scientists and men of action have achieved in their several provinces. In this respect it differs from most other Catholic encyclopedias. The Editors are fully aware that there is no specifically Catholic science, that mathematics, physiology and other branches of human knowledge are neither Catholic, Jewish, nor Protestant; but when it is commonly asserted that Catholic principles are an obstacle to scientific research, it seems not only proper but needful to register what and how much Catholics have contributed to every department of knowledge.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church , either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe.
In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples.
Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny. As for Catholics , their duty as members of the Church impels them to learn more and more fully its principles; while among Protestants the desire for a more intimate and accurate knowledge of things Catholic increases in proportion to the growth of the Church in numbers and in importance.
The Catholic clergy are naturally expected to direct inquirers to sources of the needed information; yet they find only too often that the proper answers to the questions proposed are not to be met with in English literature.
Even the writings of the best intentioned authors are at times disfigured by serious errors on Catholic subjects, which are for the most part due, not to ill-will, but to lack of knowledge. These pebble mosaics were popular in the early Hellenistic period. Some examples of rare quality have been excavated at Olynthus and Pella. Polychrome pebble pavements of decorative design were used during the archaic period.
The earliest pebble mosaic is of the late 8th century; it was discovered at Gordion in Asia Minor and consists of geometric designs distributed in a blue and red pattern on a white ground.
It seems likely that the rounded shapes of pebbles and their limited polychromy as found in nature induced the Greeks to stress silhouette and outline in the design of their figured pebble mosaics.
Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
During the Hellenistic period the development of the practice of cutting stones into small pieces of deliberate shape, called tesserae, allowed for an increase of sophistication in pictorial design akin to painting, with which the pebble mosaics had not been able to compete.
An example of this technique is a panel by Sophilos depicting Alexandria personified found at Thmuis in Egypt. Other tessellated pavements of the 3d century B. By the 2d century before Christ tessellated pavements achieved an extreme refinement in technique and pictorial conventions. Mosaics found in the palace of the Attalids at Pergamon, dating from the period before the annexation of the city by the Romans B.
During this century the Romans came into intimate contact with the Hellenistic world, and the Roman patricians soon adopted the practice of decorating homes with mosaic. The wealthy Campanian houses, buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in A. In the House of the Faun in Pompeii were found pavements dating from the latter part of the 2d century B. Naples Museum. Most famous is the large panel depicting the victory of Alexander over Darius at Issus.
It copies a Hellenistic painting, most likely by Philoxenos of Eretria. Judging from the recorded names of mosaicists on signed pavements, the artists were mainly of Greek origin.
The development of a brilliant mosaic art during the Hellenistic period, attested by a limited number of originals, is corroborated by Roman copies and texts. The luxurious boats of Hellenistic rulers were decorated with mosaics. Roman reflections of sophisticated pictorial conventions developed in Hellenistic mosaic are found in the mosaics located in the lower sanctuary of Fortuna at Palestrina, from the period of Sulla 82—79 B.
One depicts a panoramic Nilotic landscape filled with human figures, architecture, and the fauna of Egypt. The other portrays a sanctuary of Neptune beneath the sea filled with fish and encompassed by a shore. The many abrupt changes in scale and orientation evident in the composition of this mosaic are in accord with its pavement location, which excludes the possibility of a consistent spatial vision on the part of the viewer.
The widespread use of mosaics in the decoration of the Hellenistic home is illustrated by the mosaic pavements located in middle-class houses in Delos of the 2d 2 During the period of the Roman Republic and the early Empire decorative mosaics were a popular means of pavement surfacing. Their tesserae were large, of relatively constant shape and size, and evenly laid. These decorative mosaics, whose production required no unusual talent, were called opus tessellatum by the Romans, who distinguished between them and the much finer opus vermiculatum wormlike workmanship comprising smaller figural panels made of much finer stones, irregularly disposed.
Such smaller panels were capable of great refinements in pictorial modeling and landscape space. A number of the finest emblemata from Campanian houses, notably the Dioskurides panel from the House of the Faun, were mounted on plaques. The mounting indicates that they had been produced in specialized workshops and were then acquired for insertion in the pavements. Occasionally mosaics in the towns buried by Vesuvius were used on the surfaces of walls and columns.
In a small court of a house in Herculaneum an entire wall that contained a fountain and niches was decorated with mosaic. Sparkling glass tesserae depicted hounds chasing deer and vine branches and festoons set against a dark ground. On an adjacent wall appeared a panel portraying Neptune and Amphitrite. The resistance of mosaic surfaces to humidity led to their application on the walls and vaults of baths and nymphaea. However, the use of mosaic on a large scale can be traced only from the 2d century A.
During the later Roman Empire the mosaic emblem of limited size containing figural subjects was gradually replaced by a more extensive pictorial design. This tendency involved changes toward simplification in technique and composition; it is evident in the black and white pavements popular in Italy during the 2d and 3d centuries A. These pavements allowed for a graphic clarity in the discernment of an expansive subject matter presented on a neutral white ground.
Mosaic pavements were used widely in private homes and public buildings throughout the Empire. A particularly rich tradition of polychrome pavements in North Africa extends from the 1st century A. An early North African pavement of unusual refinement was found in a villa at Zliten, dating from the later 1st century A. It depicts a plant scroll with various birds and animals distributed among the volutes. The extreme fineness of the work in the figured parts is indicated by the mean count of 40 to 50 tesserae per square centimeter.
Excavations that have been made at Antioch, in Asia Minor, have given evidence of a continuous mosaic production extending from the middle Empire into the early Byzantine period. A pavement showing the Seasons from the Constantinian villa in Antioch is square and sectioned into geometric fields disposed around a common center; this symmetrical mode of composition lent itself to the design of ceilings and domes.
Early Christian, Medieval, and Byzantine Mosaics. The development of mosaic as the preferred monumental art extends from early Christianity through the entire course of the Byzantine Empire. In the medieval West its use was centered in Italy and was dependent on the presence and influence of early Christian sources, as well as on the influence of Byzantium. However, in the later Middle Ages mosaic as the preferred architectural decoration was replaced by sculpture, fresco, and stained glass.
The earliest extant vault mosaic in good condition is located in a modest Christian tomb beneath St.
Christ-Helios in a quadriga occupies the apex of the vault. A radiant halo surrounds the head, and the figure is displayed against a gold ground.
A grapevine spreads over the golden vault, which preceded by a short period of time the construction of the church above it. The intense polychromatic effect achieved in large interiors by the use of mosaic revetment, and especially by gold tesserae, is evident in Hagios Georgios in Thessalonica, whose mosaics date probably from the later 4th century.
The most impressive of all must have been the interior of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople —; and after judging by descriptions contemporary with its construction. In centralized domed buildings with mosaic interiors, churches or baptisteries, the main subject is located in the center of the dome with subordinate subjects grouped around it. In the Baptistery of the Arians in Ravenna c. In the zone around the Baptism appear the Twelve Apostles. The dome of the Baptistery of the Orthodox — has a third zone that shows, in alternation, the four Gospel books set on altars and four ornate empty thrones Ap Mosaics were distributed around the interior of the basilica.
The mosaics on the nave walls of S. In the center of the apse St. Apollinaris spreads his arms apart in the orans gesture.
Above the saint is depicted a Transfiguration rendered in symbolic terms. Christ appears in the shape of a cross enclosed in a mandorla that encloses a starry sky.
A small bust of Christ is located at the center point of the cross. The three sheep beneath the mandorla symbolize the Apostles present at the Transfiguration. Elijah and Moses appear in the sky above. The mosaic decoration of the Christian sanctuary presented the illiterate devout with visual sermons whose beauty was intended to deepen the experience of faith.
The mosaic panel in San Vitale in Ravenna depicting Justinian and his court illustrates an ability to represent succinct resemblances with reduced means. This tendency reached a peak in the portable mosaics of late Byzantium composed of extremely fine stones. Two such panels depict the 12 main feasts of the liturgical year 14th century; Opera del Duomo, Florence. The concern for the thematic distribution of mosaics within centralized interiors culminates in the decoration of the post-iconoclast cross-insquare church.
In the church at Daphni c. Around Him are the 12 Apostles, and further below appear scenes from the life of Christ; the Virgin and Child occupy the eastern apse. During the course of the Middle Ages the influence of Byzantine mosaics often reached far beyond the geographical boundaries of Byzantium.
The mosaics of the Ummayad mosque at Damascus 8th century depict landscapes with villas, derived from ancient Roman and classicizing Byzantine sources and transmitted by Byzantine mosaicists working for Muslim patrons. Byzantine influence in medieval Italy is reflected in the flourishing mosaic activity in the Veneto and Norman Sicily. The Virgin and Child in the apse of the basilica at Torcello 12th century , floating on a sea of gold, is perhaps the most striking example of Byzantine mosaic style in the West.
Rome, with its heritage of early Christian mosaics, remained an active center of mosaic production until the advent of the Renaissance. This mosaic may well have imitated an early Christian model. A major artistic achievement of the 13th century in Tuscany was the vast mosaic decoration of the dome of the baptistery of Florence. From the Renaissance until Modern Times. With the advent of the Italian Renaissance and the fall of Byzantium to the Turks mosaic ceased to be a primary artistic medium.
From the 15th century onward it relied mainly on conventions established by the painters. Its perspective depth explains, as in Renaissance painting, the natural spatial relationships within the panel itself; but its deep space is totally unrelated to the shape of the vault on which the panel rests. Maria del Popolo in Rome The reliance of the mosaicist on the painter can be traced in St.
The same situation prevailed elsewhere in Italy. During this period mosaicists had little interest in medieval work.
In the later 18th century the renewal of interest in classical, early Christian, and medieval mosaics resulted in a growth of mosaic production throughout Europe; the renewal also reached America.
This revival reflected in many ways the eclecticism of the period. Early Christian mosaics were carelessly restored, as in the case of the apse mosaic of San Michele in Affricisco in Ravenna, acquired by Prussia in and transferred to Berlin. The classical pavements discovered in the excavations of the Roman towns in Campania influenced the activity of the Belloni workshop in Paris during the early 19th century.
During the 19th and the early 20th centuries churches received extensive mosaic decoration. Watts and Alfred Stevens. Michael, and Joan of Arc. The new cathedral in St. Louis, Mo. On the whole, the style of all these mosaics is eclectic and mechanical. At the present time mosaic is used widely as an adjunct to architecture and as an independent art.
But its importance is not clearly established. The preference in contemporary art for composite media has blurred the role of mosaic as an independent medium. The recent mosaics of Jeanne Reynal, consisting of tesserae scattered here and there on rough panels of colored cement, illustrate this tendency. In recent church architecture, because of the increased awareness of the medieval heritage of Christian mosaics, frequent use is made of mosaic for the decoration of central areas in the sanctuary.
On the whole, however, the influence of the architecture of the International Style on recent churches and buildings in general, with its emphasis on clean wall surfaces and spatial clarity, seems to have impeded a broader role for architectural mosaic. The exterior of the library is wholly covered with mosaics depicting scenes from the history of Mexico.
In the bright sun these mosaics sheathe the building in a blaze of color. Bibliography: E. Chicago DIEZ and O. Princeton Athens Third Preliminary Report Oxford Lay physician; b. Benevento, Italy, July 25, ; d. Naples, Italy, April 12, Giuseppe Moscati was seventh of the nine children of Francesco Moscati d. The family moved to Naples when his father was appointed president of the court. Following his graduation from secondary school with honors , Giuseppe studied medicine at the University of Naples.
He earned his degree with first-class honors Aug. When Vesuvius erupted April , Moscati rushed to the hospital at Torre del Greco to help evacuate patients before the roof collapsed. Similarly, in , he assisted in containing a cholera outbreak. That same year he finished his scientific preparation, passed the medical boards, was appointed to a university chair in biochemistry, and began lecturing on applied research and clinical research, as well as clinical medicine.
He became known as one of the most outstanding researchers in his field. In addition to his educational and scientific contributions, Giuseppe was a practicing physician and an administrator. In the course of time he was appointed director of military hospitals during World War I with the rank of major , director of the Hospital for Incurables July 16, , coadjutor ordinary, medical director of the United Hospitals, director of the department of tuberculosis, and associate of the Royal Academy of Surgery.
Giuseppe Moscati is honored by the Church for the manner in which he practiced medicine. He required no payment from the poor, the homeless, religious, or priests, and, in fact, paid for their prescriptions himself. He used his time with patients to speak to them about the faith, often healing wounded souls as well as bodies. Moscati dedicated himself to the sacraments and prayer for his patients. He died peacefully of a stroke at age forty-seven. Patron of bachelors. Feast: Nov. Giuseppe Moscati nel ricordo dei suoi contemporanei Naples Rome Giuseppe Moscati 3rd ed.
Zeitschrift 38 : — Brussels z—tb. DAWES, trs. He was a monk and traveler, known for his collection of vivid monastic tales titled Leimon or Neos Paradeisos in Latin, Pratum Spirituale. Moschus began his monastic life at St. Toward the end of his life, John set down over tales of edifying incidents, replete with details of the life and beliefs of the times.
Their circulation was widespread. The Greek text was first printed by Fronton du Duc , more completely by Cotelier There seems to be no English translation. It is a neglected source of social and religious history, and a critical edition is needed.
Sophronius and Moschus also composed a life of John the Almsgiver, Patriarch of Alexandria, of which only a portion has survived. Bibliography: J. MIGNE, ed. Patrologia Graeca, v. Paris —66 Paris —90 — Paris —53 7.
Freiburg —32 — Little is known with historical exactitude about this key figure in the history of Israel through whose efforts the motley Hebrews became a tribal confederacy and, ultimately, a monarchy. Although his existence is no longer denied by scholars, arriving at the historical substance of Moses has been made complex by authors and editors of the Pentateuch.
Factual details have long been obscured in the oral and written traditions of the cult epic celebrating the historical deeds of Yahweh. The name Moses Heb. A popular Hebrew etymology is offered in Ex 2. Moses was born apparently at the beginning of the 13th century B. The account of his birth parallels the legendary story of King Sargon I of Akkad, who, deposited in a basket boat and rescued, achieved great prominence.
Acts 7. The Biblical narrative, a composite of oral and perhaps even written traditions, portrays Moses as fleeing to Midian after killing an Egyptian in defense of a countryman Ex 2. There he again exercised his role of champion in the cause of the seven daughters of the Kenite Jethro, a Midian priest, in whose household he then resided 2.
Moses married Zipporah, a daughter of Jethro, who bore him two children, Gershom 2. On Mt. Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob 3. In a scene somewhat inconsistent with his personality and education, Moses pleaded his ineptness for the task.
Yahweh assigned a coadjutor role to Aaron 4. Finally Moses led the Hebrews from Egypt after the ceremonial of a Passover meal. Arriving at Mt. Sinai, the people through Moses entered formally into the covenant relationship with Yahweh Ex 19 and 24; Dt 5 , the terms of which are codified in the Decalogue Ex At Cades Moses guided the Israelite tribes through the difficult period of development.
His mission accomplished, he died at Mt. Nebo without entering the promised land of Canaan Nm Though the name of Moses has always been connected with the Pentateuch, his personal contribution to Israel was long overlooked. Outside the Pentateuch the oldest references to the Exodus make no mention of Moses. Reference is seldom made to him among the Prophets.
Perhaps this is due to the Israelite mentality of eliminating instrumental causes and attributing events to the direct intervention of Yahweh. The picture that Israelite tradition created is reflected in his subordinate characterization by later authors as the servant of God 2 Kgs In the NT, where he is the most frequently mentioned OT personality, he appears primarily as the lawgiver Mt 8.
For this reason Jesus met opposition in attempting to bring the law of Moses to final realization. As Moses proclaimed the Old Law from Mt. Sinai, the Gospel writers similarly situated Jesus on a mountain for the revelation of the New Law. The typological prefigurement of Jesus by Moses in the Exodus events is solidly founded. Jesus used him to witness His approaching suffering and death Mt Moses is a model of faith for all Christians Heb Although Moses is portrayed as the father type in the Sistine Chapel, elsewhere he is more often represented in the role of savior and legislator.
The striking of the rock and the revelation of the Law were the two predominant scenes until the 5th century, when other themes were introduced. Photograph by John R. As a result of a misunderstanding of Ex Bibliography: M.
Monk; b. His strength and ferocity became legendary. The details of his conversion are not known. It is thought that he took refuge from the law with some monks and was overwhelmed by their example, for he next appears at the monastery of Petra in the Desert of Scete.
He found it hard to control his violence, but he was encouraged by Abbot St. Isidore of Alexandria. Finally, through physical labor, mortification, and prayer, he succeeded in overcoming himself. When the Berbers threatened his monastery, he remained with seven companions; all but one perished. He was buried at the monastery of Dair al—Baramus, which still stands. Feast: Aug. Acta Sanctorum Aug. Plan of the Mosque. From here he repeats the call at two specified points during the Friday service.
The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition (15 Volume Set)
The earliest mosques of Islam were little more than open quadrangles. The Mosque and Worship. Outside the capital prayers were recited in the mosque for the Caliph or ruler as a kind of oath of loyalty; often it was in the mosque that revolutions were begun, the first open sign thereof being the substitution of another name for that of the ruler. With the great increase in the number of Muslims, however, and the universal need that was felt for the weekly community service, there came to be Friday mosques even in the villages; the larger centers may have several, often of considerable size.
From the beginning there were many mosques besides the congregational mosques.
Numerous local and tribal mosques formed the center of both the religious and political activities of particular groups. Mosque of the Sultan Hassan, Cairo, Egypt. According to some authorities there should be no more than one in a particular town; in fact, according to others there should 10 Again, following the ancient Arabian custom of honoring the graves of ancestors and important chiefs and the Christian veneration of the saints, a great number of mosques were built as sanctuaries over the tombs of various saints and heroes of Islam, distinguished for their piety, learning, etc.
While originally the building of mosques and their maintenance were taken as responsibilities of the government, later many were built and endowed by private individuals as pious works. As a result, the number of mosques reported to have existed at certain times in various major cities, even allowing for considerable exaggeration on the part of the sources, is truly astounding.
The Mosque and Education. From early times mention is made of the majlis or h: alqa circle of those who came to hear and receive the instruction of learned men and ascetics who taught and preached there.
LEWIS et al. Leiden — — For further bibliog.
Marseilles, France, He was a member of a distinguished family. From the start, he worked for the sanctification of his clergy. To this end he reorganized the seminary and made it a model for others in Spanish America; he organized the Spiritual Exercises for the priests and issued important decrees on ecclesiastical discipline. He visited all of his extensive diocese and endeavored to provide for the Christian education of youth.His mission accomplished, he died at Mt.
Augustine, and St. On September 13, they buried her in a simple white marble tomb in the mother house of the Missionaries of Charity. At the first session, on June 22, , the Council fathers unanimously approved one of St. Paris —66 By absolutely right conduct is understood, of course, that which produces pleasure unalloyed with pain; by relatively right conduct, that which has any painful concomitants or consequences. Joel Rippinger, O.
Social sciences came into their own in the twentieth century.